Acute cholecystitis is usually associated with blockage of the cystic duct by a stone.
Mechanical obstruction, chemical inflammation, and bacterial infection are believed to play a role.
A vast majority of patients are believed to become symptomatic due to bacterial infection.
Organisms cultured from the gallbladders include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, group D Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium.
Three factors contribute to the onset of inflammation - stasis of bile in the gall bladder, release of lysolecithin, and super-infection with bacteria.,
Much more common in women, particularly in middle aged, obese women who have had several children.
|General Gross Description|
Grossly, the gallbladder is enlarged, tense and shows evidence of acute inflammation in the form of congestion, edema, and serositis with the deposition of fibrin on the surface.
The obstructing stone may be readily found in the cystic duct or in the neck of the gallbladder.
Usually the gallbladder contains several additional stones.
The wall of the gallbladder most often shows evidence of both acute and chronic inflammation.
In extremely acute and severe cases, there may be necrosis of sections of the wall of the gallbladder, referred to as gangrenous cholecystitis.
|General Microscopic Description|
The microscopic features are classical for acute inflammation and include hyperemia, polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, edema and in severe cases, necrosis of the wall of the gall bladder.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 888
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th Ed: Isselbach et. al. (eds). New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994, pp.1508
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||Synopsis by: T.V.Rajan, M.D., Ph.D. (T57000M41000)