Diet plays a part in stone formation.
Some cases are hereditary.
Some cases are due to inborn errors of metabolism such as gout and cystinuria.
There are four main types of stones: calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite and cystine.
Stone nucleation usually occurs on pre-existing surfaces and growth is dependent on factors such as urine concentration, pH, urine volume.,
Annual incidence of urinary stones is 7 to 21 cases per 10,000 persons in the United States.
Males are affected more often than females.
Peak age of onset between 20 to 30 years.
|General Gross Description|
Uroliths vary considerably in size, shape and color and are not particularly revealing as to their chemical content.
Urinary stones are sent for chemical analysis for more useful information.
|General Microscopic Description|
Uroliths are not examined by microscopic sections.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 984-985.
Primer on Kidney Diseases, 1994 (National Kidney Foundation (Greenberg A. editor).
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||Synopsis by: Harold Yamase M.D. (T74000M30000)