Anoxia is due to lack of oxygen transport to the brain
It may be due to exposure to CO or CN which bind with
hemoglobin to form compounds which do not allow oxygen
to be transported, pulmonary disease, cardiac disease
or cardiac and/or respiratory arrest.
Severe blood loss
can also lead to anoxia of the brain.
Anoxia interferes with the function of neurons
causing swelling of mitochondria due to loss of their
ability to process glucose and lack of energy production
for the use of other organelles and membranes in the
Neurons are most susceptible to anoxia followed
by oligodendroglia, astrocytes and connective tissue.,
Anoxia is comman in patients exposed to CO in fires and
patients who develop a cardiopulmonary arrest,
particularly out of the hospital when CPR is not begun
within 4 minutes.
|General Gross Description|
The brains of patients who become anoxic are usually
swollen with flattening of the gyri and narrowing of
the sulci and decreased size of the ventricles.
|General Microscopic Description|
The classic sign of ischemic or anoxic neurons is
shrinkage and eosinophilia of the neuronal cell body.
After a week neurons disappear and reactive astrocytes
are seen in their place.
Poirer J et.al. Manual of basic neuropathology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990, pp.163-166.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 1308-1309.
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|Synopsis by: M. L. Grunnet M.D. (TX2000M50000)