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Cerebral Atrophy
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Cerebral Atrophy

One half of a coronal section of the brain at the level of the lenticular nucleus and internal capsule, resting on its side
Note the marked widening of the sulci and narrowing of the gyri and markedly enlarged lateral ventricle.
This is a case of severe atrophy due to Battens disease, a ceroid-lipofuscinosis which produces what is known as hydrocepholus ex vacuo; that is, enlarged ventricles due to loss of parenchymal tissue.
(Description By:Margaret Grunnet,M.D. )
(Image Contrib. by: )
Atrophy
Etiology

Cerebral atrophy, that is, widening of the sulci and narrowing of the gyri, can be seen after many types of damage to the brain such as chronic HIV infection, ischemic infarcts, and old trauma.
It can also be seen with aging, degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis and chronic disease.
Dilatation of the ventricles accompany the gyral changes.
Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of atrophy is loss of neurons and astrocytosis in the cortex and other structures along with other signs of aging or ongoing disease.,
Epidemiology

Cerebral atrophy is common in aging as with chronic diseases.
Almost everyone will develop it as they go through life.
General Gross Description

In cerebral atrophy there is widening of the sulci and narrowing of the gyri as well as enlargement of the lateral ventricles.
General Microscopic Description

Microscopic finding will be loss of neurons and astrocytosis as well as findings of the accompanying disease such as senile plagues and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease or white matter plaques in multiple sclerosis.
Clinical Correlation

Cerebral atrophy of mild to moderate degree may have no clinical signs although severe atrophy is usually seen in patients with dementia.
References

Poirer J et.al. Manual of basic neuropathology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990, pp.11.
Atrophy
Synopsis by: M.L. Grunnet M.D. (TX2000M58000)[364]
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