The exact etiology is not known but has to do with several mutations in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
Some appear as a part of several hereditary syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or Turcot's syndrome.
The cause of the glioblastoma or any brain tumor is not known but changes or loss of chromosome 17 and inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene, p53, play a role. Thus far, we do not know what precipitates these changes.,
Glioblastomas are the most comman primary brain tumor.
They account for 50% of all gliomas and arise after age 50 in most patients.
Younger patients tend to have a better prognosis than the elderly.
Radiation and chemotherapy appear to extend the life of the patient.
|General Gross Description|
The glioblastoma multiforme has a multiform or variable appearance with evidence of old and recent hemorrhage (yellowish-brown to red), necrosis and areas of firm tissue.
Usually the glioblastoma is seen as a mass lesion involving a focal area although it may cross the corpus callosum to the other hemisphere or be multifocal.
|General Microscopic Description|
Microscopically the glioblastoma has many forms as well.
Is a highly cellular tumor with pleomorphic, basophilic nuclei with indistinct cytoplasmic borders or plump pink cytoplasm and a delicate fibrillary background.
Mitoses,necrosis, and capillary endothelial proliferation are common.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 1342-1344.
Poirer J et.al. Manual of basic neuropathology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990, pp. 25-26.
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||Synopsis by: M. L. Grunnet M.D. (TX2000M94403)